● Non-specifi c reactions, such as the use of antacids, are those that work to reduce the excess
● Active metabolites are the active forms of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
Applications and skills
● Explanation of how excess acidity in the stomach can be reduced by the use of different bases.
● Construction and balancing of equations for neutralization reactions and the stoichiometric
application of these equations.
● Solving buffer problems using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation.
● Explanation of how compounds such as ranitidine (Zantac) can be used to inhibit stomach acid
● Explanation of how compounds like omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium) can be
used to suppress acid secretion in the stomach.
● Antacid compounds should include calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide,
sodium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogencarbonate).
● Structures for ranitidine, omeprazole, and esomeprazole can be found in the data booklet in section