● Atoms of different elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds, which have different
properties from their component elements.
Names and symbols of the elements are in the IB data booklet in Section 5.
● Mixtures contain more than one element and/or compound that are not chemically bonded
together and so retain their individual properties.
● Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Applications and skills
● Deduction of chemical equations when reactants and products are specified.
Balancing of equations should include a variety of types of reactions.
● Application of the state symbols (s), (l), (g), and (aq) in equations.
● Explanation of observable changes in physical properties and temperature during changes of state.
● Names of the changes of state – melting, freezing, vaporization (evaporation and boiling),
condensation, sublimation and deposition – should be covered.
● The term ‘latent heat’ is not required.
Producing and Balancing SYMBOL equations
Quiz time: Please complete the following problems and submit your answers using the form below
1. Balance the following equations.
a. NaBr + F2 à NaF + Br2
b. K + H2O à KOH + H2
c. H2O2 à H2O + O2
d. CuSO4 + KCN à Cu(CN)2 + K2SO4
e. P4 + O2 à P4O6
f. CH4 + O2 à CO2 + H2O
g. N2 + F2 à NF3
h. AlBr3 + K2SO4 à KBr + Al2(SO4)3
2. Write and balance the equation for each of the reactions.
a. Potassium and chlorine react to form potassium chloride.
b. Solid aluminum and aqueous hydrochloric acid react to form hydrogen gas and aqueous aluminum chloride.
Nitrogen and hydrogen, both in the gas phase, react to form gaseous ammonia.
States of Matter and Diffusion
Energy changes between states of matter
This video is reminding you of the states of matter and the energy changes involved in the state changes. It also explains what states substances are at room temperature and why, which is key to identify states symbols for reactants and products in symbol equations.