● A covalent bond is formed by the electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and
the positively charged nuclei.
● Single, double, and triple covalent bonds involve one, two, and three shared pairs of electrons
● Bond length decreases and bond strength increases as the number of shared electrons increases.
● Bond polarity results from the difference in electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
Bond polarity can be shown either with partial charges, dipoles, or vectors.
Applications and skills
● Deduction of the polar nature of a covalent bond from electronegativity values.
Electronegativity values are given in section 8 of the data booklet.
Lewis dot structure/ Dot and Cross Diagram