Essential ideas of Unit
Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds
10.1 Organic chemistry focuses on the chemistry of compounds containing carbon.
10.2 Structure, bonding and chemical reactions involving functional group interconversions are key strands in organic chemistry.
20.1 Key organic reaction types include nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, electrophilic substitution, and redox reactions. Reaction mechanisms vary and help in understanding the different types of reaction taking place.
20.2 Organic synthesis is the systematic preparation of a compound from a widely available starting material or the synthesis of a compound via a synthetic route that often can involve a series of different steps.
20.3 Stereoisomerism involves isomers which have different arrangements of atoms in space but do not differ in connectivity or bond multiplicity (i.e. whether single, double, or triple) between the isomers themselves.
D1 Medicines and drugs have a variety of different effects on the functioning of the body.
D.2 Natural products with useful medicinal properties can be chemically altered to produce more potent and safe medicines.
D.3 Potent medical drugs prepared by chemical modification of natural products can be addictive and become substances of abuse.
D.4 Excess stomach acid is a common problem that can be alleviated by compounds that increase the stomach pH by neutralizing or reducing its secretion.
D.5 Antiviral medications have recently been developed for some viral infections while others are still being researched.
D.7 Chiral auxiliaries allow the production of individual enantiomers of chiral molecules.
D.8 Nuclear radiation, whilst dangerous owing to its ability to damage cells and cause mutations, can also be used to both diagnose and cure diseases.
D.9 A variety of analytical techniques is used for detection, identification, isolation, and analysis of medicines and drugs.
D.6 The synthesis, isolation, and administration of medications can have an effect on the environment.